An Gorta Mór – The Great Irish (Potato) Famine

Standard

Since learning of my Irish ancestry and figuring that my family, which came from Maine, was probably descended from the Irish who immigrated there during The Great (Potato) Famine, I decided to do some research. I’ll consider the view from Ireland first.

 

Potato Blight, Phytophthora infestans

Potato Blight, Phytophthora infestans

During the summer of 1845, a blight devastated Ireland’s potato crop, the basic staple in the Irish diet. The blight was Phytophthora infestans, a fungus-like microorganism. When infected with this organism, potatoes will, a few days after being dug from the ground, begin to turn into a slimy, decaying, blackish mass. The fungus had traveled from Mexico to Ireland.

What is different about this famine is that it was a product of social causes. Under British rule, Irish Catholics were prohibited from entering the professions or even purchasing land. Instead, most Catholics rented small plots of land (half under 5 acres) from absentee British Protestant landlords. Since Catholics made up 80% of the population, the bulk of the population lived in conditions of poverty and insecurity, with no chance for opportunity and innovation.

According to historians, the landlords regarded the land as a source of income from which to extract as much money as possible. The rents from their Irish tenants were enormous, an estimated £6,000,000 in 1842 alone. Landlords seldom if ever visited their properties, which generated enormous resentment.

The potato was introduced to Ireland as a garden crop, with the main diet of the 17th century

Skibbereen, Ireland, 1847 by artist James Mahony (1810–1879), commissioned by Illustrated London News, 1847

Skibbereen, Ireland, 1847 by artist James Mahony (1810–1879), commissioned by Illustrated London News, 1847

still consisting of butter, milk and grain products, with potatoes as a supplementary food. In the early 18th century, potatoes became the food for the poor, especially in winter. Furthermore, most of the potatoes grown in Ireland were of a single variety. The dependency for food on a single crop and its lack of genetic variability were the two main reasons why the potato blight has such a devastating effect.

Without the primary food staple, famine and its associated diseases (cholera, dysentery, scurvy, typhus) spread through the poor of the Irish countryside. Observers reported seeing children crying with pain and looking like skeletons, little more than bones. Mass graves were everywhere.

But even during the Famine, wheat, oats, barley and other crops were still grown on landlords’ farms; these were shipped abroad while the people starved.

Beggars on the O’Connell Estate, Pictorial Times, Feb 14, 1846

Beggars on the O’Connell Estate, Pictorial Times, Feb 14, 1846

To add to the misery, landlords, who were responsible for paying taxes for every tenant who paid less than £4 in yearly rent, evicted tenants who couldn’t pay their rents and let the land in larger plots to reduce their costs. With the Famine in full gear, a great mass of evictions came in 1847.

Britain adopted measures to try to cope with the famine. The Corn Laws were repealed; these had been enacted to protect British grain producers from Irish competition. The repeal failed to end the crisis since the Irish lacked sufficient money to purchase foreign grain, and corn proved to be a poor dietary substitute for potatoes. Then they set up soup kitchens and devised programs

At the Gates of the Workhouse, 1846

At the Gates of the Workhouse, 1846

of emergency work relief, many of which ended when a banking crisis hit Britain. Finally, in the end, a system of work houses, originally established in 1838, took in the poor and the starving. These grim institutions had never been intended to deal with a crisis of such enormity. Some 2.6 million Irish entered overcrowded workhouses, and more than 200,000 people died there.

Longford Workhouse, built between 1840 and 1842

Longford Workhouse, built between 1840 and 1842

Irish Emigrants on the Mersey, Pictorial Times, June 6, 1846

Irish Emigrants on the Mersey, Pictorial Times, June 6, 1846

During the famine, approximately two million Irish left their homeland for Great Britain, Canada, and the United States. Within five years, the Irish population was reduced by a quarter. Whole families did not migrate but sent their younger members, and unlike similar emigrations throughout the world, women emigrated just as often and in the same numbers as men. The emigrants started new lives in a new land, which was not always friendly to them, but sent money home in amounts approaching £1,404,000 by 1851.

The Famine also had some long-lasting effects. It changed the already strained relations between Ireland and England, with many Irish blaming England for genocide. These intense feelings led to the rise of Irish republicanism and eventually to Irish Independence.

Advertisements

5 thoughts on “An Gorta Mór – The Great Irish (Potato) Famine

  1. That certainly explains why the Irish emigrated not only to the USA but also to Australia. We used to have the most delicious potatoes on Tanna and I often wondered if the Irish potatoes were as nice as ours then it would have been no problem to live on them almost exclusively.

    • I do like potatoes, but not to distraction. My favorites are Yukon Gold. There is a potato research facility in Maine, just south of Presque Isle, and Maine still produces a lot of potatoes, although the state is not the leading producer.

  2. Noelle, that was an interesting article. I knew about the potato famine leading to the Irish diaspora in the 19th century, but I hadn’t really thought about the social reasons behind it. my novels are set in the 19th century, so it’s something I could incorporate. Patrick Bronte, the patriarch, was Irish, and Jane Eyre considers leaving England and working in Ireland. Charlotte Bronte went to Ireland on her honeymon, too! There’s definitely an Irish connection there! ‘Forced’ immigration is so sad, and it’s happened (and is happening) all over the planet, but on the other hand immigrants themeslves and following generations usually benefit from their multicultural heritage. My parents were originally from Spain, although I’m British, and I also have Italian ancestors. I always say ‘the best’, or at least the most adventurous, make the effort to leave in search of a better life for themselves and their descendents. They should be honoured and remembered! Thanks for the post!

    • Lucia, I’m glad you liked the post. I just began reading your book and can’t wait to get back to it!
      I was indeed surprised when I got into the details of the Famine and learned about the absolute cruelty of the Irish landlords. Glad that this gave you some ideas. Now I need to research this from the US side, specifically Maine. I am also multicultural – in addition to Irish, I am partly French and Polish. My mother and I added my grandmother’s and great-grandmother’s names to the lists at Ellis Island, where they entered the country. Here’s to genetic mutts! We’ve inherited strength and fortitude!

  3. Noelle, did you happen to see my post for I for the A-Z Challenge was the Irish Famine Monument in Sydney? I have quite a contingent of Irish ancestors and my surname is Curtin and they came from the City of Cork, County Cork but we also come from Mallow and Midelton and Ennis, in County Clare. I met Irish song writer Brendon last name escpaes me but he wrote the song: “You Raise me up” He also wrote two novels set during the and after the Famine which traverse from Ireland through to Australia and Boston: “The Whitest Flower” and I think the other one might be called “An Element of Fire”. Strongly recommend you get home of them.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s